## Integer Constants

Integer constants can be decimal (base 10), hexadecimal (base 16), binary (base 2), or octal (base 8). In the absence of any overriding suffixes, the data type of an integer constant is derived from its value.

### Long and Unsigned Suffixes

The suffix `L`

(or `l`

) attached to any constant forces that constant to be represented as a `long`

.
Similarly, the suffix `U`

(or `u`

) forces a constant to be `unsigned`

.
Both `L`

and `U`

suffixes can be used with the same constant in any order or case: `ul`

, `Lu`

, `UL`

, etc.

Also, there are `ULL`

(or `ull`

) and `LL`

(or `ll`

) suffixes which force constant to be `unsigned long long`

or `long long`

type.

In the absence of any suffix (`U`

, `u`

, `L`

, `l`

, `LL`

, `ll`

, `ULL`

or `ull`

),
a constant is assigned the “smallest” of the following types that can accommodate its value: `short`

, `unsigned short`

, `int`

, `unsigned int`

, `long int`

, `unsigned long int`

, `long long`

or `unsigned long long`

.

Otherwise:

- If a constant has the
`U`

suffix, its data type will be the first of the following that can accommodate its value:`unsigned short`

,`unsigned int`

,`unsigned long int`

. - If a constant has the
`L`

suffix, its data type will be the first of the following that can accommodate its value:`long int`

,`unsigned long int`

. - If a constant has both
`L`

and`U`

suffixes, (`LU`

or`UL`

), its data type will be`unsigned long int`

. - If a constant has the
`LL`

, its data type will be`long long`

. - If a constant has the
`ULL`

, its data type will be`unsigned long long`

.

### Decimal

Decimal constants from -9223372036854775808 to 18446744073709551615 are allowed. Constants exceeding these bounds will produce an “Out of range” error. Decimal constants must not use an initial zero. An integer constant that has an initial zero is interpreted as an octal constant. Thus,

inti = 10;/* decimal 10 */inti = 010;/* decimal 8 */inti = 0;/* decimal 0 = octal 0 */

In the absence of any overriding suffixes, the data type of a decimal constant is derived from its value, as shown below:

Value Assigned to Constant | Assumed Type |
---|---|

< -9223372036854775808 | Error: Out of range! |

-9223372036854775808 – -2147483649 | long long |

-2147483648 – -32769 | long |

-32768 – -129 | int |

-128 – 127 | short |

128 – 255 | unsigned short |

256 – 32767 | int |

32768 – 65535 | unsigned int |

65536 – 2147483647 | long |

2147483648 – 4294967295 | unsigned long |

4294967296 – 18446744073709551615 | unsigned long long |

> 18446744073709551615 | Error: Out of range! |

### Hexadecimal

All constants starting with `0x`

(or `0X`

) are taken to be hexadecimal. In the absence of any overriding suffixes, the data type of an hexadecimal constant is derived from its value, according to the rules presented above. For example, `0xC367`

will be treated as `unsigned int`

.

### Binary

All constants starting with `0b`

(or `0B`

) are taken to be binary. In the absence of any overriding suffixes, the data type of an binary constant is derived from its value, according to the rules presented above. For example, `0b11101`

will be treated as `short`

.

### Octal

All constants with an initial zero are taken to be octal. If an octal constant contains the illegal digits 8 or 9, an error is reported. In the absence of any overriding suffixes, the data type of an octal constant is derived from its value, according to the rules presented above. For example, `0777`

will be treated as `int`

.

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